Phoenix dactylifera, is popularly known as the date palm. Although commonly referred to as a "palm tree", they are actually a true palm not a tree, and all palms, including the date palm, belong to a group of plants that are known as monocotyledons which include grasses, bamboos, palms, lilies, daffodils, irises, hostas, and orchids.
There are many other palms that produce edible drupes or dates, however their "dates" are almost all seed with very little flesh and most are quite small. Only phoenix dactylifera - the true "date palm" produces the large edible dates that are cultivated and sold today. The female phoenix dactylifera palm produces dates from 1 to 3 inches long with varying degrees of sweetness. There are hundreds of named varieties of phoenix dactylifera date palms, and one of the most famous is the large soft Medjool date palm, while the most widely grown date is the semi-dry Deglet Noor date palm. A few of the other famous date palm varieties which are available in California are the Barhi date palms, the Zahidi date palm, and the Halawi date palm. Each of these date palm varieties produce delicious dates with distinct differences in flavor, moisture content, and size.
Phoenix dactylifera date palms have been cultivated by man for at least six thousand years! Date palms are mentioned in the bible, and their leaves were carried as symbols of victory by kings in ancient times. Date palm leaves were also used to hail Jesus during His entry into Jerusalem. Today Christian's have Palm Sunday, and Muslims break their Ramadan fast each night by eating a date. Islam regards the date palm tree as the tree of life.
The date palm is not as well known in the USA, but it is very important in the Middle East and Northern Africa because the date palm grows well in the dry desert heat of these areas. In the past, dates had a very important role in these desert regions as the staple food crop. It was comparable to rice, wheat, and potatoes in other cultures!
For commercial date production, the top date producing regions are the Middle East and North Africa. Iraq was the largest producer of the dates, although today Iran is thought to be the largest producer. Saudi Arabia is another major producer of dates and their national symbol has date palms. Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria produce large commercial quantities of dates, and these countries also have date palms on their stamps and currency.
In the USA, dates are being grown in Southern California, Southwestern Arizona, and around Las Vegas, Nevada.
Dates are also grown in some areas of Mexico and in South America, as well as in Australia, Western China, Western India, and in Southern Pakistan. According to the World Food and Agricultural Organization, there are an estimated 100 million date palm trees worldwide. An estimated 60% of all date palms are grown in the Middle East and North Africa.In recent years medjool date palms have become very popular with homeowners, especially in Southern California and Arizona!
Homeowners are discovering that medjool date palms are very desirable not only for their delicious dates but also for the tropical ambience they lend to one's yard. Many people also want to plant date palms in their yard because of the date palm's ancient history.
Date palms grow well throughout Southern California.
There are many named date palm varieties. The most popular in USA is the Medjool date palm. Other famous named varieties are the Barhi date palm, the Zahidi date palm, and the Deglet Noor date palm. Another less well know date palm variety that is the Halawi date palm which, like the Barhi date palm, produces dates that can be eaten at the khalal stage while still hard and crunchy.
Date palms like full sun and plenty of water, although they are very drought hardy and can survive extended periods without watering once they are established. Newly planted date palms require frequent watering until they are well established. Mature date palms can withstand temperatures several degrees below freezing.
Male date palms are used as the source of pollen for the female date palm varieties, and the males are also very popular for landscaping in California. Mature male date palms flower briefly in the spring each year.
For commercial date production, date palms require summertime heat and air with little moisture as is found in the Southern California deserts, and they require lots of water!
In its early years, the date palm produces off-shoots which can be removed and planted. Female date palm off-shoots will usually begin to produce fruit at about 12 years of age.
Date palms can be grown from seed, however the quality of the dates will vary in seedling date palms and only about half the palms grown from seed will be females. These seedling date palms are known as "hybrid" date palms as compared to named date palm varieties grown from offshoots. Both male and female date palm seedlings are used extensively in landscaping. Male date palm seedlings are also used as a source of date palm pollen.
Female date palm seedlings are used in landscaping where the natural beauty of the date palm is very important, but the quality of the dates is not a factor since the date pods are pruned off and removed from the palm each year in the springtime.
Some of the named date palm varieties have a very beautiful full canopy like the medjool date palm, while some named date palm varieties like the deglet noor have a more open sparse canopy that is less attractive for landscaping. For this reason, the highest quality date palm seedlings grown for landscaping are from medjool seeds, and they are known as medjool hybrid date palms. In California, please call 909 941 1060 for info on our medjool hybrid date palms for landscaping.male date palm flowers produce the pollen, and the female date palm produces flowers which will become dates, if they are pollinated.
Date palms do pollinate naturally by wind, bees and other insects, but proximity of the male date palms to the females is crucial, and date production from open polination is usually very low. Artificial pollination increases date production substantially. Artificial pollination of date palms is performed using the date palm pollen from male date palm flowers to polinate the female date palm flowers.The photo at left shows a just opened male date palm flower.
The flower stalks of both male and female date palms are produced inside a spathe which emerges from the axils of the leaves in the same position where the offshoots are produced. The date palm flowers form within the long stout spathe which, on bursting, exposes many thickly crowded floral branchlets which are stout and short in the male date palm inflorescence, and the branchlets are long and slender in female date palm inflorescence. An adult female date palm produces 10 - 20 spathes in early spring each year. The male flowers are borne single and are waxy white, while the female flowers are borne in clusters of three and are yellowish green in colour. A male spathe that is ready to split assumes a brown colour and a soft texture. Immediately after the spathe breaks open and the male inflorescence appears, these male flowers reach their maturity. Date growers traditionally harvest the male flowers within one or two days after the spathe splits open.
To purchase fresh date palm male flowers (and date palm pollen), call (909) 941 1060.
There are several methods of date palm polination in use today. The oldest and simplest pollination technique consists of placing an entire male flower spathe in the crown of the female date palm and leaving the pollination to wind, bees and other insects. This technique does not always yield uniform fruit sets unless if several of the male flower spathes are placed in the crown of the female date palm. This requires the availability of numerous male flower spathes.
Successful commercial date production requires artificial pollination to ensure good pollination. In locations where labor is relatively expensive, the pollination is mechanized. Mechanized pollination reduces the number of male date palms needed for pollination. The male/female ratio in a modern commercial date palm plantation with mechanized pollination is generally about 40 females to one male date palm. The most common technique of pollination in regions with inexpensive labor is to cut the strands of male flowers from a freshly opened male spathe and place two to three of these strands, lengthwise and in an inverted position, between the strands of the female inflorescence after some pollen has been shaken over the female inflorescence.
The date fruit takes about six months to ripen. In the middle east, there are four named stages of date ripening; kimri, khalal, rutab, and then tamar. The kimri stage is while the dates are green. The khalal stage is when the dates have grown to their maximum size and turn yellowish or reddish depending on the specific date variety. In the rutab stage, the dates begin to soften and lose their bright colors. The date is fully mature at the tamar stage.
Most dates are eaten at the fully mature tamar stage, although the Barhi and Halawi dates are also eaten at Khalal stage, when they are sweet and crunchy.
Dates are classified as soft, semi-dry, and dry. The dry dates are commonly used in the middle east for everyday consumption. The sweeter dates are used as a dessert in the Middle East as well as the United States. Among the sweeter dates is the Medjool Date which is considered by many to be the "king of dates" and was once reserved only for royalty! The medjool is known for its unusually large size and its delicious flavor. It can grow to about three inches long and even though it is classified as a soft date it is firmer and more resilient than most other soft dates and it handles much better as well. The Medjool date was brought to the United States through the United States Department of Agriculture. There was a disease in Morocco that was spreading quickly among the Medjool date palms and a Moroccan official offered some shoots to a representative from the USDA which in turn were taken and planted in California. The medjool is now thriving in California as one of the top varieties of dates.
Mature female date palms yield an average of about 100 pounds of dates per palm each year. One of the most important factors in date yield is the amount of irrigation water they receive. The cultivation of dates is very labor intensive and dangerous. While the dates are maturing on the palm, the dates are preyed upon by small mammals, birds, and insects. Farmers place a protective bag around each date cluster to prevent access to the dates and also for rain protection. Some date varieties are much more vulnerable to moisture. Soft dates are much more difficult to cultivate and require extensive care and handling.
We offer both male & female date palms for sale in California, including female medjool date palms grown from offshoots. Our Medjool date palms are available in all sizes from recently removed pups or "offshoots" to full grown mature palms. Please call 909 941 1060 to arrange your medjool date palm purchase. The photo at left shows a rooted medjool offshoots in 15 gallon containers. We over 1000 rooted medjool offshoots in containers available right now!
Please call 909 941 1060 to arrange your Barhi date palm purchase in California.
Male date palms are typically used for landscaping, and also as a source of date palm pollen for pollination of female date palms.
Female date palms are usually grown for date production. Male date palms for landscaping are relatively inexpensive, while some female date palms grown from off-shoots of specific date cultivars have very limited availability and high demand.
Older mature date palm trees are sold based on their age and the amount of woody trunk the palm has: a recently removed pup usually has about 1 foot of woody trunk, a 12 foot tall date palm has about 4 feet of woody trunk, and a 20 foot tall date palm has about 10 feet of woody trunk. Please call 909 941 1060 for current date palm price & availablilty.
This photo shows a well rooted medjool date palm offshoot in a 25 gallon pot at about 12 years of age. It has around 2.5 feet total of woody trunk, with a foot of the trunk planted under the soil. This is a vigorous rooted medjool offshoot. With proper care, it will continue growing about one foot taller each year after planting in your yard. This size medjool palm is mature and it is ready to produce dates! We have a few hundred rooted medjool date palm offshoots available for sale in this size right now (please call 909 941 1060 for details).
For homeowners and most small acreage growers, we suggest planting rooted date palm off-shoots instead of fresh cut date palm off-shoots. When fresh-cut medjool date palm offshoots are planted into containers first and allowed to develop their own roots before being planting out in the field, they are known as rooted medjool date palm off-shoots. After 1-2 years in their pots, the surviving offshoots will have developed their own roots and are now cabable of sustaining vigorous new growth.
We also have rooted medjool date palm off-shoots for sale in 15 gallon pots for those who wish to start with a smaller rooted medjool date palm offshoot, and then eventually grow their own dates at home in their yard. We have much larger size mature female medjool date palms in large containers and boxes as well.
Our smaller size male date palm rooted offshoots are also for sale in 15 gallon to 25 gallon pots (male date palms are used for polination & for landscaping).
Our female medjool date palm "rooted" offshoots are in 15 gallon, 25 gallon, and 65 gallon pots. These medjool palm pups were removed from their medjool mother palms over two years ago. They have now developed their own roots, and they have put out at least 2-3 feet of new growth. Our 8 year old female medjool date palm rooted off-shoots stand about 7 to 8 feet tall. These rooted medjool off-shoots are ready for planting. Please call 909 941 1060 for price information and how to purchase.
Date palms are very popular because of their striking regal look and their natural beauty.
Many people want to have date palms growing in their yard because of the date palm's ancient history and religious significance. The date palm's easy maintenance in a home landscape is very desirable as well.
The date palm is very impressive as single specimens in a landscape, and staggered group plantings can be truly spectacular. Date palms grow slowly with only about a foot of growth per year under most climates. They can live for about 200 years and they can eventually reach heights of around 80 feet tall.
Date palms grow well in Southern California where they are used mostly in landscaping. Male date palms are frequently used in landscaping because they do not yield the annual crop of dates which can attract pests. There are three main varieties of female date palms used in landscaping; the Medjool date palm, the Zahidi date palm, and the Deglet Noor date palm. Another less well know date palm variety that is also very desirable for landscaping is the Halawi date palm, which is even larger than the Medjool date palm.
Medjool date palms have a larger and more full dense canopy when compared to the Deglet Noor, which has a canopy that is more sparse and open with fewer fronds. The Medjool and Zahidi date palms are somewhat similar in appearance with beautiful silvery green foliage. The Zahidi date palm does have a slightly larger trunk than the Medjool and the Zahidi's canopy is slightly more full and dense - truly a beautiful landscape specimen.
Medjool date palms grow taller each year, and it becomes more costly and dangerous to harvest the dates as they get taller.
Commercial date growers in California usually end up selling their older date palms that have become too tall for harvesting dates. These large date palm specimens are ideal for many landscaping projects!
In Southern California it not unusual to see tall date palm specimens providing shade in the parking lots of convenience stores and fast food restuarants.
Date palms are also very popular in landscape designs for commercial buildings.
Dates are highly nutritional and many believe them to be one of natures most perfect foods! People of the Middle East have consumed the fruit of the date palm for thousands of years as part of their diet.
Dates have 20 different kinds of amino acids, which aid in the digestive process. Dates are very rich in both vitamins and minerals, and they contain more potassium than an orange or a banana per ounce. These nutritious fruit of the date palm contain vitamins A, A1, B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6. Dates also are rich in oil, calcium, sulfur, iron, potassium, phosphorous, manganese, copper, protein and fiber. Dates are fat free, cholesterol free, and they are very low in sodium. Dates also are high in carbohydrates, and they are an excellent source of quick energy. Dates are helpful to people suffering with anemia, constipation and fatigue. Dates act as natural laxatives and can be an easy remedy for constipation.
In most dates varieties, the sugar content of a date is almost entirely of the inverted forms glucose and fructose (except for deglet noor dates and thoory dates which have higher percentages of sugar in the form of sucrose). This is very important important for people who cannot tolerate sucrose. The invert sugar in dates is immediately absorbed by the human body without the need for digestion that ordinary sugars like sucrose undergo.
Traditionally, the fruit of the date palm has been used for treating many kinds of ailments in the Islamic world including the treatment of respiratory disorders, and to stimulate the heart rate. Dates also have traditionally been processed into a salve for treating certain kinds of wounds. The fruit of the true date palm also is recommended for consumption by lactating women to add extra nutrition into their diet. The Plant Sciences Division website at the University of California at Davis, states that Bedouin Arabs who eat dates on a regular basis have shown an extremely low incidence of cancer and heart disease when compared with people who do not eat dates regularly.
The fruit of the true date palm also makes great emergency food rations due to the date's high caloric content and nutritional value combined with date's ablity to keep well for long periods of time.
We have fresh picked medjool dates available for purchase each year in October and November. Our medjool dates are all organically grown by the "true organic" method with no pesticides, no chemical fertilizers, and no preservatives! We have a limited quantity of organically grown fresh picked medjool dates available each year, and we sell out before the crop is picked, so be sure to place your order early! We will begin taking orders for this year's crop of organic medjool dates on August 25.
Barhi dates are the softest of all date varieties when fully ripe and they are very sweet! Barhis are a medium size date with wonderful caramel-candy like flavor. The barhi date is famous and very popular for being able to be eaten at the khalal stage when it is yellow and is syrupy and still crunchy like an apple. The flavor at this khalal stage is very different. It is sweet but sometimes has a touch of astringency. To order fresh organically grown barhi dates at this yellow crunchy khalal stage, please call (909) 941 1060. We will begin taking orders for this year's organically grown barhi date crop on August 10.
If allowed to ripen further, the barhi date will next enter the rutab stage where it changes color to brown as it softens and becomes very sweet.
We will have a limited amount of fresh picked barhi dates available this year.
Barhi date palms grow very well in Southern California. For landscaping, the barhi date palm trunk is large and the canopy is is very beautiful and very impressive.
We have large rooted barhi offshoots available right now in 25 gallon containers!
Halawi dates (aka Halawy) are a very sweet soft date variety of medium size with wonderful caramel-honey like flavor. The halawi date palm variety is from Mesopotamia, and the name actually means "sweet" in Arabic. In some cultures, the halawi date is eaten at the khalal stage when it has become yellow and is still crunchy like an apple. The flavor at this khalal stage is less sweet and very different. In some cultures, the halawi date is eaten at the khalal stage when it has become yellow and is still crunchy like an apple. To order fresh organically grown Halawi dates at this yellow crunchy khalal stage, please call (909) 941 1060.
If allowed to ripen further, the halawi date will next enter the rutab stage where it begins to turn a beautiful golden-amber color as it softens and becomes very sweet and delicious.
We will have a limited amount of fresh picked Halawi dates available this year. We will begin taking orders for this year's organically grown Halawi date crop on August 25.
Halawi date palms grow very well in Southern California. For landscaping, the halawi date palm trunk and canopy is much larger than both the medjool and the zahidi, making the halawi date palm a very impressive landscape specimen!
Zahidi date palms (aka Zehedi, Zadie, and originally from the Persian Azadi) produce a very sweet delicious date of medium size that can be used as a soft date or as a dry date, depending on the length of time it is allowed to remain on the palm.
The zahidi date palm is a very old variety from Mesopotamia dating back thousands of years, and the name meant Nobility in ancient Persian. Ripe zahidi dates have beautiful golden-yellow color and they are early season.
The Zahidi date palm offshoots shown at left are 10-12 year old rooted off-shoots in 25 gallon pots.
We have female zahidi date palm offshoots available. These rooted zahidi offshoots stand 15 feet tall and have from 2 feet of woody trunk. They are now old enough to start producing dates! Please call (909) 941 1060 for pricing.
Zahidi date palms are very vigorous and prolific in fruiting, and they grow well in Southern California. For landscaping, the zahidi date palm is among the finest of the date palms. The zahidi trunk and canopy is very similar to the medjool date palm with beautiful silvery green foliage, and the zahidi has a slightly more dense upright canopy than the medjool. Like the medjool, the zahidi date palm is highly prized for the quality and flavor of its dates, and for its fine appearance.